[ti:How Americans Decide to Go to War] [by:www.51星和彩票.com] [00:00.00]更多听力请访问51VOA.COM [00:00.04]Speaking at the White House on Wednesday, U.S. President Donald Trump [00:05.96]defended his targeted killing of an Iranian general. [00:10.48]Qassem Soleimani was the head of Iran's Quds Force. [00:15.88]He died last Friday in a U.S. airstrike near Baghdad International Airport. [00:22.52]His death increased tensions in the area. [00:26.60]Iran has already answered by firing missiles into Iraq. [00:32.28]The missiles landed at two military bases that house U.S. troops. [00:40.68]No casualties from that attack were reported. [00:44.60]Trump did not speak Wednesday about using additional military force against Iran. [00:51.84]Instead, he said he would put more economic restrictions on the country. [00:59.04]But many American lawmakers are expressing concerns [01:03.84]about open war between the two countries. [01:07.20]They will vote this week on a measure to prevent U.S. military forces [01:13.36]from taking action against Iran unless Congress approves. [01:20.44]The U.S. Constitution says Congress has the authority to declare war. [01:26.60]And it says the president is the commander-in-chief of the military. [01:32.60]The men who wrote the Constitution divided these powers on purpose. [01:38.36]They wanted to prevent one person or group from making a sudden move [01:44.28]toward war without others in the government agreeing. [01:49.28]But lawmakers and the president have often clashed over how to operate [01:55.16]within the rules of the Constitution. [01:58.40]The last time Congress officially declared war was almost 80 years ago, during World War II. [02:07.44]American military actions since then have happened without an official declaration of war. [02:16.60]In 1973, Congress passed the War Powers Act [02:21.92]to further define the president's role in directing military actions. [02:27.52]The law required that U.S. presidents had 38 hours to report to Congress [02:35.16]after committing U.S. forces to military actions overseas. [02:41.32]The president must also officially say why she or he is committing forces. [02:49.48]In 2001, lawmakers and the president worked together to create a resolution [02:56.72]permitting actions to answer terrorist threats. [03:01.00]It is called the Authorization for Use of Military Force, or AUMF. [03:10.08]The AUMF is unusual because it permits actions against groups or people, as opposed to nations or areas. [03:21.72]The resolution has created debate under Presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama, and Trump. [03:30.76]All three leaders have used the AUMF's large definition of a terrorist threat [03:38.04]to say military actions are needed. [03:42.76]Observers say Trump appears to be using his ability to strike under the War Powers Act, [03:50.56]which permits the president to use military force to answer an attack. [03:56.68]Trump's government noted intelligence they say pointed to planned attacks [04:02.84]on Americans as a reason for the airstrike. [04:07.08]In a tweet on Sunday, Trump wrote, "These Media Posts will serve as notification [04:14.24]to the United States Congress that should Iran strike any U.S. person or target, [04:20.76]the United States will quickly & fully strike back, & perhaps in a disproportionate manner. [04:28.40]Such legal notice is not required, but is given nevertheless!" [04:35.12]Lawmakers from the opposition party to the president, the Democrats, [04:40.12]have expressed concerns about how Trump's government told lawmakers about the airstrike. [04:47.04]Some want to require Trump to discuss increasing hostilities against Iran with Congress [04:54.00]and the public before taking action. [04:57.60]For his part, Trump on Wednesday called on the security alliance of NATO [05:04.00]to become "much more involved in the Middle East process." [05:09.32]I'm Kelly Jean Kelly. 更多听力请访问51VOA.COM